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Nanotechnology is the use of matter at the atomic, molecular and supramolecular scale for industrial purposes. The earliest popular description of nanotechnology refers to the specific technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules to fabricate macro-scale products, also known today as nanotechnology. molecular nano Later, a more general description of nanotechnology has been established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative , which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one possible dimension. sizes from 1 to 100 nanometers . This definition reflects the fact that the effectsQuantum mechanics is very important at this quantum field scale , and so the definition has shifted from being a specific technological goal to a research category that includes all types of research and technology for dealing with objects. special properties of matter. below the given size threshold. Therefore, it is common to refer to the plural form "nanotechnology" as well as "nano-scale technology" to refer to a wide range of studies and applications that are characterized by size in common.

Size-defined nanotechnology is naturally vast, encompassing scientific fields as diverse as surface science , organic chemistry , molecular biology , semiconductor physics , and energy storage. quality ,  engineering , microfabrication , and molecular engineering .  Related studies and applications are equally diverse, ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to entirely new approaches based on molecular self-assembly ,  from developfrom novel materials with dimensions on the nanoscale to direct manipulation of matter at the atomic scale.

Scientists are currently debating the implications of nanotechnology in the future. Nanotechnology can create many new materials and devices with a wide range of applications , such as in nanomedicine , nanoelectronics , energy biomaterials production and consumer products. On the other hand, nanotechnology poses many of the same problems as any new technology, including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials, [9] and the potential effects of nanomaterials. them for the global economy, as well as speculation about doomsday scenariosdifference. These concerns have led to a debate between advocacy groups and governments over whether nanotechnology regulations are warranted. 

The concepts of nanotechnology were first discussed in 1959 by renowned physicist Richard Feynman in his talk There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom , in which he described the possibility of synthesis through direct manipulation. with atoms.

In 1961, Egyptian engineer Mohamed Atalla and Korean engineer Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs fabricated the first MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor) with an oxide gate thickness of 100 nm , along with port length 20 µm . [10] In 1962, Atalla and Kahng fabricated a nanolayer -base metal junction semiconductor (MS coupling) transistor which used a gold (Au) thin film with a thickness of 10 nm .

The term "nanotechnology" was first used by Norio Taniguchi in 1974, although it is not widely known. Inspired by Feynman's concepts, K. Eric Drexler used the term "nanotechnology" in his 1986 book Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology , proposing the idea of an "installation house" assembly" nanoscale can create a copy of itself and of other items of arbitrary complexity with atomic control. Also in 1986, Drexler co-founded the Foresight Institute (to which he is no longer a part) to help increase public awareness and understanding of nanotechnology concepts and implications.

The emergence of nanotechnology as a field in the 1980s occurred through the convergence of the theoretical and public work of Drexler, which developed and popularized a conceptual framework for nanotechnology, and highly visible experimental advances draw attention on a broader scale to the atom-driven prospect of matter. Since its popularity spiked in the 1980s, most nanotechnology has involved the study of some approach to making mechanical devices from a small number of atoms.

During the 1980s, two major breakthroughs accelerated the development of nanotechnology in the modern era. First, the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope in 1981, which provided unprecedented images of individual atoms and bonds, and was successfully used to manipulate individual atoms in 1989. Microscope developers Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer at IBM's Zurich Research Laboratory received the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physics.

Second, fullerenes were discovered in 1985 by Harry Kroto , Richard Smalley and Robert Curl , who together won the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry .  C60 was not originally described as a technology. nano; The term has been used in connection with subsequent work with related graphene tubes (called carbon nanotubes and sometimes called Bucky tubes), suggesting potential applications for electronics and devices. nano size. The discovery of carbon nanotubes was largely attributed to NEC 's Sumio IijimaNEC in 1991,  for which Iijima won the 2008 inaugural Kavli Prize in Nanoscience .

In 1987, Bijan Davari led an IBM research group that demonstrated the first MOSFET with 10 nm gate oxide thickness , using tungsten gate technology .  Multi-gate MOSFETs allow scaling below 20 nm gate length , starting with FinFET (fin-field-effect transistor), a three-dimensional, non-planar, dual-gate MOSFET.FinFET originated with research by Digh Hisamoto at Hitachi Central Research Laboratory in 1989.  At UC Berkeley, FinFET devices were built by a team that included Hisamoto along with TSMC 's Chenming Hu and other international researchers including Tsu-Jae King Liu , Jeffrey Bokor, Hideki Takeuchi, K. Asano, Jakub Kedziersk, Xuejue Huang, Leland Chang, Nick Lindert, Shibly Ahmed and Cyrus Tabery. The group made FinFET devices down to 17nm in 1998, and then to 15nm in 2001. In 2002, a team including Yu, Chang, Ahmed, Hu, Liu, Bokor, and Tabery built the FinFET device. 10nm size .

By the early 2000s, the field had attracted increasing attention from scientific, political, and commercial circles, leading to both controversy and progress. Controversy has arisen regarding the definitions and potential implications of nanotechnology, as evidenced by the report of the Royal Society for Nanotechnology. Challenges have been raised regarding the feasibility of the applications envisioned by proponents of molecular nanotechnology, which culminated in a public debate between Drexler and Smalley in 2001. and 2003. 

Meanwhile, the commercialization of products based on advances in nanoscale technology began to emerge. These products are limited to mass applications of nanomaterials and do not involve atomic control of matter. Some examples include Silver Nano platform to use silver nanoparticles as antibacterial agent, nanoparticle- based transparent sunscreen , carbon fiber enhancement using silica nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes for textiles anti-stain.

Governments have moved to promote and fund research in nanotechnology, such as in the US with the National Nanotechnology Initiative , which formalized the size-based definition of nanotechnology and establish funding for research on the nanoscale and in Europe through the European Framework Programs for Research and Technology Development .

By the mid-2000s, serious and renewed scientific interest began to develop. Projects that appear to offer a nanotechnology roadmap focus on the precise atomic manipulation of matter and discuss existing and planned possibilities, goals, and applications.

In 2006, a team of Korean researchers from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) and the National Fab Nano Center developed a 3 nm MOSFET, the world's smallest nanoelectronic device . It is based on full- gate FinFET (GAA) technology. More than 60 countries created government nanotechnology research and development (R&D) programs between 2001 and 2004. Government funding has exceeded corporate spending on research and development nanotechnology development, with the majority of funding coming from corporations based in the United States, Japan, and Germany. The top five institutions that filed the most intellectual property patents on nanotechnology R&D between 1970 and 2011 were Samsung Electronics (first 2,578), Nippon Steel (first 1,490), IBM (1,360 ). first patent), Toshiba (first 1,298 patents) and Canon(1,162 first patents). The top five institutions that published the most scientific papers on nanotechnology research between 1970 and 2012 were the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Russian Academy of Sciences , the Center National de la recherche scientifique , the University of Tokyo and the University of Tokyo. Osaka University .